Comparison of the long term effects of TM and Mindfulness
Most studies on Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) are over an 8 week period, and there are only a few long-term studies of a year or more on MBSR or other mindfulness programs.
By contrast, there are several long-term studies on the Transcendental Meditation technique.
Examples Of Long-Term Effects Of The Transcendental Meditation Program
|Decreased Mortality (7): 18.8 years maximum, 7.6 years mean follow up; RCT, N = 202.
||No Studies on Mortality.|
|Decreased Recidivism Among Former Prison Inmates: 15 years, 12.2 years average followup (8). RCS, N = 248.
||No Studies on Recidivism.|
|Decreased Medical Expenditures: 14 years, pre and post intervention, 6 year post intervention (9). RCS, N = 2,836.
||No Studies on Medical Expenditures.|
|Decreased Medical Care Utilization: 11 years (10). RCS, N = 693 TM, 600,000 norms.
Note: Similar results were found comparing TM subjects to a matched control group of 4,148 people over 4 years.
|Medical Utilization: 1 year (11).UPP, N = 73 total, 47 chronic care, 36 Spanish.
|Increased Personality Development: 10 Years (12) PCS, N = 136.
||No Studies on Personality Development|
|Decreased Coronary Heart Disease Events: 9 years maximum, 5.4 years mean followup (13, 14). RCT, N = 201.
||No Studies on Coronary Heart Disease Events.|
|Decreased Medical Expenditures Among High Cost People: 6 years, Five years followup(15). RCS, N = 284.
||No Studies on Medical Expenditures.|
|Decreased Medical Care Utilization: 5 years (16). RCS, N = 694 to 2119 for TM, 1468 mean; 22,440 total for five control groups, 600,000 norms.
||See above, reference 11.|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial: subjects were randomly allocated to receive the TM or Control treatment in a prospective study. RCS = Retrospective Cohort Study: subjects who learned TM were compared on outcomes over time with similar control subjects who did not learn TM, using archival data. PCT = Prospective Controlled Trial: in a prospective study,subjects who had learned TM were compared on standard tests over time with similar control subjects who did not learn TM. UPP = uncontrolled Pre-Post experiment: subjects were measured before and after treatment, no control group.
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15. Herron RE. Changes in Physician Costs Among High-Cost Transcendental Meditation Practitioners Compared With High-Cost Nonpractitioners Over 5 Years. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2011;26(1):56-60.
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